Tips for writing a personal statement for teacher training Ruth T
Steven Graham, Karen R. Harris, and Lynn Larsen This paper presents six principles designed to prevent writing difficulties as well as to build writing skills: Abstract Many students with LD experience difficulties mastering the process of writing.
We examine how schools can help these children become skilled writers. Six principles designed to prevent as well as alleviate writing difficulties are presented.
The mn was sneB translation: If theu go to like dutch countri sombodie might ask them something theu cold have two kinds of langage The two compositions presented above were written by Arthur Dent 1, a 5th-grade child with a learning disability LD. The first was written at the start of 2nd grade in response to a picture of a young girl showing her father a large fish she had caught.
The second exposition was Arthur's written reply to his 5th-grade teacher's query, "Should children have to learn a second language? One, his responses are inordinately short, containing few ideas and little elaboration, and two, it is difficult to decipher his writing, because of spelling, punctuation, and capitalization miscues.
Concern about Arthur's writing capabilities initially surfaced in 1st grade. His teacher observed that he was reluctant to write, often became frustrated while writing, and avoided working or sharing his writing with others.
Teachers in 2nd and 3rd grade indicated that Arthur would hurry through writing assignments, doing little or no planning in advance, and writing quickly, taking short pauses to think about the spelling of a word or what to say next.
They further noted that it was difficult to get him to revise his written work, and when he did revise, his efforts typically focused on making the paper neater, correcting spelling miscues, and changing a word here and there.
As a consequence of his difficulties with writing, Arthur was tested for learning disabilities at the start of 4th grade. Although his intellectual capabilities were within the normal range, he scored 2 standard deviations below the mean on a norm-referenced writing test, qualifying him for special education services.
Unfortunately, Arthur's difficulties with writing are not unique.
They are shared by many other children with LD. Just like Arthur, children with LD typically employ an approach to composing that minimizes the role of planning in writing. This approach to writing was illustrated in a recent Peanuts cartoon 2 where Charlie Brown's dog, Snoopy, is typing, "The light mist turned to rain.
Like Snoopy, children with LD often compose by drawing any information from memory that is somewhat appropriate, writing it down, and using each idea to stimulate the generation of the next one. With this retrieve - and-write process little attention is directed at the needs of the audience, the constraints imposed by the topic, the development of rhetorical goals, or the organization of text.
Another Peanuts cartoon involving Snoopy as well as his most ardent critic, Lucy, captures a second similarity between Arthur and other poor writers with LD. After typing, "Dear Sweetheart," Snoopy gives his paper to Lucy for feedback.
She quickly informs him that he should use a more endearing greeting. When asked to revise, they primarily employ a thesaurus approach to revising, correcting mechanical errors and making minor word substitutions.
Not surprisingly, this approach has little impact on improving the quality of their writing. A third similarity between Arthur and other students with LD can be revealed by returning to our friend Snoopy once again. After finding a seat in the back of the classroom at Charlie Brown's school, Snoopy tries to remember the "I before E" rule in case he is asked to spell a word.
He has it all confused, however, thinking that it is the "I before C" rule, or maybe the "E before M except after G" rule, or possibly the "3 before 2 except after 10" rule. Like Snoopy, many children with LD struggle with the mechanics of writing.
In contrast to classmates who write well, their papers are replete with spelling, capitalization, punctuation, and handwriting errors. Mechanical skills, such as handwriting fluency and spelling, however, play an important role in writing development, accounting for a sizable portion of the variance in writing quality and fluency.
A fourth characteristic common to Arthur and other students with LD can be illustrated in a Peanuts cartoon involving Charlie Brown's sister, Sally. While practicing her periods, Sally tells her brother that periods are very important, shouting that a "PERIOD" must be added at the end of every sentence.
Like Sally, children with LD often overemphasize the importance of transcription skills, such as handwriting, spelling, punctuation, or capitalization.Student writing can be evaluated on five product factors: fluency, content, conventions, syntax, and vocabulary.
Writing samples also should be assessed across a variety of purposes for writing to give a complete picture of a student's writing performance across different text structures and genres. The Online Writing Lab (OWL) at Purdue University houses writing resources and instructional material, and we provide these as a free service of the Writing Lab at Purdue.
Turnitin provides instructors with the tools to prevent plagiarism, engage students in the writing process, and provide personalized feedback. Achieve Amazing Results From A Proven System: Grant Writing Basics is the longest-running course on the Internet on "how to write a grant" with an amazing track record (over $ Billion in only two-and-a-half years of testing)!
Here is something else truly amazing Grant Writing Basics doesn't just include what works for one person (me) like most grant writing seminars do. The Premed Playbook: Guide to the Medical School Personal Statement helps guide students in crafting their stories for the medical school Admission Committees.
It's not only a collection of essays from students who got into top schools, but is a showcase of essays that started badly and were honed to . For the Fall Job Market I am re-posting the essential job application posts.
We’ve looked at the Cover Letter and the CV; today we look at the Teaching Statement. An expanded and updated version of this post can now be found in Chapter 25 of my book, The Professor Is In: The Essential.