By learning more about their lives and works, you will gain a better understanding of the influence they had on behaviorism. Ivan Pavlov was a Russian physiologist who first discovered and described the conditioning reflex.
One has to be careful with "ism" words. They often have both loose meanings and strict meanings. And sometimes multiple meanings of each type. Behaviorism is one of those "isms". Loosely speaking, behaviorism is an attitude -- a way of conceiving of empirical constraints on psychological state attribution.
Strictly speaking, behaviorism is a doctrine -- a way of doing psychological science itself. A behaviorist, so understood, is someone who demands behavioral evidence for any psychological hypothesis. For such a person, there is no knowable difference between two states of mind beliefs, desires, etc.
Consider the current belief that it is raining.
If there is no difference in my behavior between believing that it is raining and currently thinking that the sun is bright, there is no grounds for attributing the one belief to me rather than the other. The attribution is empirically unconstrained.
Arguably, there is nothing truly exciting about behaviorism loosely understood. It enthrones behavioral evidence, an arguably inescapable premise in not just psychological science but in ordinary discourse about mind and behavior. Just how behavioral evidence should be 'enthroned' especially in science may be debated.
But enthronement itself is not in question. Not so behaviorism the doctrine. It has been widely and vigorously debated. This entry is about the doctrine, not the attitude. Behaviorism, the doctrine, has caused considerable excitation among both advocates and critics. In a manner of speaking, it is a doctrine, or family of doctrines, about how to enthrone behavior not just in the science of psychology but in the metaphysics of human and animal behavior.
Behaviorism, the doctrine, is committed in its fullest and most complete sense to the truth of the following three sets of claims.
Psychology is the science of behavior. Psychology is not the science of mind -- as something other or different from behavior. Behavior can be described and explained without making ultimate reference to mental events or to internal psychological processes.
The sources of behavior are external in the environmentnot internal in the mind, in the head. In the course of theory development in psychology, if, somehow, mental terms or concepts are deployed in describing or explaining behavior, then either a these terms or concepts should be eliminated and replaced by behavioral terms or b they can and should be translated or paraphrased into behavioral concepts.Behaviorism was a major force in psychology during the first half of the twentieth-century and played an important role in establishing psychology as a science rather than a philosophical pursuit.
However, it is important to note that the behavioral school of thought does have some weaknesses. Psychological Approaches: Functionalism, Structuralism, Gestalt, Psychoanalysis & Behaviorism Approaches to Psychology.
Functionalism is the theory that defines mental states by their function. Functional psychology or functionalism refers to a psychological philosophy that considers mental life and behaviour in terms of active adaptation to the person's environment.
As such, it provides the general basis for developing psychological theories not readily testable by . an objective psychology that seeks to understand, predict, and control behavior as a function of environmental stimuli how different from structuralism and functionalism focus on observable behavior.
Functionalism and Behaviorism are two schools of thought in psychology, between which certain differences can be identified.
Functionalism can be considered as one of the earlier schools of thought. Functionalists stressed that the focus of psychology should center on the functioning of the human mind. In psychology, verificationism underpins or grounds analytical behaviorism, namely, the claim that mental concepts refer to behavioral tendencies and so must be translated into behavioral terms.
Analytical behaviorism helps to avoid substance dualism.