In fact, the government is the final authority to take decisions regarding production, utilization of the finished industrial products and the allocation of the revenues earned from their distribution.
There is a widely held view that we live today in a world in which economic, political and technological relations have changed substantially. The changes they are referring to are: The emergence of giant corporations with branches in countries throughout the world. Such corporations dominate production of computers, cell phones, oil and petrol, food, tobacco, pharmaceutical and armaments.
The annual budgets of many of these corporations are larger than those of small governments.
As a result they are powerful players in the economic and political life of many countries Within the giant corporations, the production process of goods and services themselves have become globalised.
For example, where once motor plants produced cars from start to finish at one site, today different component parts are manufactured in different parts of the world and assembled in yet another.
In many instances the result is that labour intensive production such as in the production of clothing and footwear takes place in countries where wages and conditions of employment are low.
Examples are found throughout the Far East where women and children are employed under conditions which would be outlawed in Western Europe and the United States. High value added production processes such as in the electronics industry takes place in countries with well paid and highly skilled labour such as Japan and Western Europe etc.
Computers, cell phones, and internet have brought about major changes in world communication. Not only is it easier to communicate across the globe, but countries and regions without access to this new technology are excluded from world developments.
Just as local economies are influenced, and in many instances dominated by giant corporations, national governments can no longer make policy and run their countries in isolation from the rest of the world. The United Nations, the Commonwealth, the European Union, the International Labour Organisation, the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund are examples of international bodies that influence the policies and choices that national governments can make.
The United States, Western Europe and Japan are today the key beneficiaries and leaders of the globalised world. Their historical status as colonial powers, with industrialized societies gave them a significant edge.
Countries of the South, many of which were former colonies, face enormous challenges of poverty and under-development. Many African, Asian and South American countries have not been in a position to respond as favourably to globalisation. Over the last twenty years, the United States, Western Europe and Japan have come to own and control: Throughout the s, countries in Africa, Central South Africa, Latin America and Asia were forced to impose structural adjustment policies designed by the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank in order to secure loans to support their weak economies.
The effect of these policies has been dramatic cutbacks on government spending on education, health services and welfare in these countries. The result is that ordinary people are poorer and have less access to government services than they had a decade ago.
The recent invasions of Afghanistan and Iraq by the United States and Britain are a brutal example of the inequality that exists at a political level in a globalised world. Some people have argued that South Africa should resist the effects of globalization and refuse to participate in the globalised world.
This position assumes that countries can choose whether or not to participate in the new world order.
In the previous section we gave some examples of the inequalities which exist in the world order and some of the ways in which developing countries have been forced to implement policies and strategies not necessarily of their choosing.
In this sense we need to understand globalization as a fact of life, much in the same way in which people in the last century had to accept the industrial revolution.
The challenge we face is how to respond to globalization and its impact. How to get your name on the housing waiting list? The challenge for a small nation like South Africa is how to respond creatively to the challenges posed by globalization in an environment in which we understand that we are not an equal player.
There are a number of ways in which our government is already responding creatively to this challenge:Globalization or globalisation is the process of interaction and integration between people, companies, and governments alphabetnyc.comization has grown due to advances in transportation and communication technology.
With increased global interactions comes the growth of international trade, ideas, and alphabetnyc.comization is primarily an economic process of interaction and integration that. There has long been a consensus that globalisation brings more jobs, higher wages and lower prices - but now many people are voicing their anger against free trade.
GCSE Industry Glossary. [email protected]: a high-tech zone located on a brownfield site in Barcelona.
|Globalization - Wikipedia||These are external links and will open in a new window Close share panel Brexit Image copyright Getty Images Image caption A model of a giant snake is held aloft by protesters at an anti-globalisation rally in Berlin Free trade and globalisation seem to be under siege from a broad and loud range of opponents.|
|KOF Globalisation Index – KOF Swiss Economic Institute | ETH Zurich||Read more Globalisation Globalisation refers to the integration of markets in the global economy, leading to the increased interconnectedness of national economies. Markets where globalisation is particularly common include financial marketssuch as capital markets, money and credit markets, and insurance markets, commodity markets, including markets for oil, coffee, tin, and gold, and product markets, such as markets for motor vehicles and consumer electronics.|
|Command Economy, Planned Economy | Economy Watch||Introduction What is globalisation? There are many different definitions of globalisation, but most acknowledge economic integration — namely, the increase in international trade and investment — which has driven the movement of people, goods, capital and ideas across borders.|
|Global Value Chains (GVCs) - OECD||Begin by opening your learning journal for this activity. Globalisation describes a world environment in which there is relatively free and frequent movement of goods, capital, people, information and ideas internationally.|
Agglomeration: a group of industries in the same location.. Agglomeration Economies: savings which arise from the concentration of industries in urban areas and their location close to linked activities.
e.g.A car factory attracts component suppliers to locate close by, saving on transport costs. Introduction.
If climate change is the key process in the natural world impacting on sustainable development, then globalisation is the parallel process in the human world, creating both opportunities for, and barriers to, sustainable development. The KOF Globalisation Index measures the economic, social and political dimensions of globalisation.
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