In the early years of what later became the United States, Christian religious groups played an influential role in each of the British colonies, and most attempted to enforce strict religious observance through both colony governments and local town rules. Most attempted to enforce strict religious observance. Laws mandated that everyone attend a house of worship and pay taxes that funded the salaries of ministers. Although most colonists considered themselves Christians, this did not mean that they lived in a culture of religious unity.
Spelling in the 16th and 17th centuries was seldom consistent and often done by the sound of the word rather than by a specified rule. That could lead to wildly varied spellings, depending on where the writer came from. For example, Martin Frobisher, from Yorkshire, spelt "service" as "sarves" which would have been how he heard it.
Often these variants extended to a person's own name. Frobisher signed himself as Frobiser, Frobissher and even Furbisher. Alternate spellings of names and places are given in parentheses. Consistency in spelling would not arrive until well into the 18th century.
England was in a tumultuous era, rapidly changing from a predominantly agrarian society to a mercantile and maritime power.
Strife between religious factions tore the nation apart, and upset international alliances. Economies were changing, European wealth and trade shifting from the Mediterranean to the Atlantic. It was a turbulent, rich and exciting era. Henry VIII's break from the Catholic Church in had isolated England from most of Europe, and for most of the century threatened war to restore Catholic power - preferably through a subservient Catholic ruler on the throne.
Henry's main allies were a group of small, rebellious states in Northern Europe. The Netherlands were fighting to slough off Spain's domination, some of the German states were fighting to establish their Protestant church free of the Pope and Catholic control. The Protestant Reformation had begun with Martin Luther in and spread rapidly among many nations.
Henry wasn't terribly sympathetic to the Protestants - he would have remained Catholic had the Pope been amenable to granting him a divorce.
But the Pope didn't distinguish between the selfish source of Henry's quarrel and the argumentative Protestants like Luther and Calvin. Henry was also not terribly interested in the New World, either, and was more intent on his own quest for an heir than in exploration.
When Henry died inhis sickly nine-year-old son, Edward, was placed on the throne. Edward's inheritance also included the debts left behind by Henry's uncontrolled spending.
Edward VI was the puppet of staunch -often radical - Protestant advisors. During his short time, the English economy further weakened, the continuing result of Henry's mismanagement. Money was devalued, products from the New World flooded English markets while demand for domestic products waned.
He was undone by his attempts to place his family on the throne following Edward's death, through a forced marriage between Lady Jane Grey and his son. Lady Jane was declared queen, but the people denied Dudley's ambitions and wouldn't support her.
After nine days, Mary Tudor, Henry's eldest daughter and a staunch Catholic, rode into London on a wave of popular support.
Lady Jane was imprisoned and executed. England briefly returned to Catholicism at the hands of "Bloody" Mary, whose short reign was marked by brutal repressions of Protestants. Those few, violent years served to push England firmly into the Protestant camp, and to push the treasury deeper into the red.
Elizabeth became the third woman on the English throne in a row, in an age still dominated by male heads of state "Woman in her greatest perfection was made to serve and obey man", wrote John Knox, First Blast of the Trumpet against Monstrous Regiment of Women, She strove to to eliminate the religious unrest that had marked her predecessors' rules.
Unfortunately, the machinations of Mary Queen of Scots and her Catholic faction threatened several assassination plots against Elizabeth, forcing Elizabeth to take a stronger Protestant stance.
She executed Mary to stem the continual threats. Elizabeth felt forced into war by the persecution of European Protestants by Spain and France. She sent an army to to aid the Huguenots Calvinists who had settled in France after more than 3, were massacred in France, in She also sent assistance to Protestant factions on the continent and in Scotland, and assisted the Netherlands in their bid to gain independence from Spain.
Philip II of Spain decided to end Elizabeth's interference by marrying her, but Elizabeth rejected his marriage proposal. That, combined with his outrage over continued English piracy and forays into Spain's New World colonies, was the final straw for Philip.
The indignant Spanish King gathered his navy and sent a large Armada to raid England and bring Elizabeth to heel. However, the English won the naval battle and overnight England emerged as the world's strongest naval power, setting the stage for later English imperial designs.
It was also a time of spies.The Plantations of New England were a series of colonisation efforts by Europeans on the east coast of North America, Additionally, though the tobacco industry thrived to a much greater extent in Southern colonies, tobacco was also grown to a relatively lesser extent in New England.
Other crops included melons and strawberries. England - Cultural life: England’s contribution to both British and world culture is too vast for anything but a cursory survey here. Historically, England was a very homogeneous country and developed coherent traditions, but, especially as the British Empire expanded and the country absorbed peoples from throughout the globe, English culture has been accented with diverse contributions from.
Essay on A Comparison Of The New England And The Chesapeake Bay Colonies - AP US History A Comparison of the New England and Chesapeake Bay Regions During the 's, people in the American colonies lived in very distinctive societies.
Freedom Movement Bibliography. See also: Books Written by Freedom Movement Veterans Book Titles Grouped by Subject Film, Videos & Audio Movement-Related Web Links. New England Colonies Certainly what those early colonists wanted was the freedom to worship God as they deemed proper, but they did not extend that freedom to everyone.
Those who expressed a different approach to religious worship were not welcome. Colonial New England Summary & Analysis. BACK; NEXT ; Settlement: It's a Process.
European political rivalries and military conflicts spilled over the Atlantic and into the colonies, where imperial officials from France and England both encouraged Indian uprisings against each another's settlements.
remained mainstays of life and even.