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The cyclical pattern of how hegemonic masculinity is produced, reproduced, and perpetuated Terry Kupers of The Wright Institute describes the concept of hegemonic masculinity in these terms: In contemporary American and European culture, [hegemonic masculinity] serves as the standard upon which the "real man" is defined.
It is also shaped to a significant extent by the stigmatization of homosexuality. Hegemonic masculinity is the stereotypic notion of masculinity that shapes the socialization and aspirations of young males. This model was integrated into a systematic sociological theory of gender.
The resulting six pages in Gender and Power by R. Connell  on "hegemonic masculinity and emphasized femininity" became the most cited source for the concept of hegemonic masculinity.
The idea was then transferred to the problem of gender relations. The core concepts of power and difference were found in the gay liberation movement which had not only sought to analyse the oppression of men but also oppression by men.
Empirical social research also played an important role as a growing body of field studies documented local gender hierarchies and local cultures of masculinities in schools,  male-dominated workplaces,  and village communities.
Original framework[ edit ] The particular normative form of masculinity that is the most honoured way of being a man, which requires all other men to position themselves in relation to it, is known as hegemonic masculinity.
In Western society, the dominant form of masculinity or the cultural ideal of manhood was primarily reflective of white, heterosexual, largely middle-class males. The ideals of manhood espoused by the dominant masculinity suggested a number of characteristics that men are encouraged to internalize into their own personal codes and which form the basis for masculine scripts of behaviour.
This was manifested in political and cultural exclusion, legal violence, street violence, and economic discrimination.
Heterosexual men and boys with effeminate characteristics ran the risk of being scorned as well. Hegemonic masculinity is neither normative in the numerical sense, as only a small minority of men may enact it, nor in an actual sense, as the cultural ideal of masculinity is often a fantasy figure, such as John Wayne or John Rambo.
Rather, hegemony can operate through the formation of exemplars of masculinity, symbols that have cultural authority despite the fact that most men and boys cannot fully live up them. Thus, fully achieving hegemonic masculinity becomes an unattainable ideal. Complicity to the aforementioned masculine characteristics was another key feature of the original framework of hegemonic masculinity.
Yet still since men benefit from the patriarchal dividend, they generally gain from the overall subordination of women. However, complicity is not so easily defined as pure subordination since marriage, fatherhood, and community life often involve extensive compromises with women rather than simple domination over them.
In this way hegemony is not gained through necessarily violent or forceful means, but it is achieved through culture, institutions, and persuasions. For example, new information technology has redefined middle-class masculinities and working-class masculinities in different ways.
In a racial context, hegemonic masculinity among whites sustains the institutional oppression and physical terror that have framed the making of masculinities in black communities.
Criticisms[ edit ] As the earliest model of this concept grew, so did the scrutiny and criticisms surrounding it. The following principal criticisms have been identified since debate about the concept began in the early s. To Hearn,  the concept of masculinity is blurred, uncertain in its meaning, and tends to deemphasize issues of power and domination.
To Petersen,  the concept of masculinity is flawed because it reduces the character of men or imposes a false unity of a fluid and contradictory reality. The concept of masculinity is criticized for being framed within a heteronormative conception of gender that oversimplified male-female difference and ignores differences and exclusions within the gender categories.
The concept of masculinity is said to rest logically on a dichotomization of sex biological and gender cultural and thus marginalizes or naturalizes the body. Therefore, a consistently relational approach to gender is being called upon.
Ambiguity and overlap[ edit ] Early criticisms of the concept raised the question of who actually represents hegemonic masculinity. Martin  criticizes the concept for leading to inconsistent applications sometimes referring to a fixed type and other times to whatever the dominant form is.
Wetherell and Edley  contend this concept fails to specify what conformity to hegemonic masculinity actually looks like in practice. Similarly Whitehead  suggests there is confusion over who actually is a hegemonically masculine man.
Through examples from his fieldwork among youth in Maputo, Mozambique he shows that this change is related to social polarization, new class identities and the undermining of breadwinner roles and ideologies in a neoliberal economy. The problem of realness[ edit ] It has also been argued that the concept of hegemonic masculinity does not adequately describe a realness of power.
Holter believes in distinguishing between patriarchy and gender and argues further that it is a mistake to treat a hierarchy of masculinities constructed within gender relations as logically continuous with the patriarchal subordination of women.
In response to the adverse connotations surrounding the concept, Collier  remarks that hegemonic masculinity is solely associated with negative characteristics that depict men as unemotional, aggressive, independent, and non-nurturing without recognizing positive behaviours such as bringing home a wage or being a father.Fathers' rights movement; Egalitarianism; Intactivism By country.
Men's rights and that UK commentators questioned some of the analysis. The NHS also noted that condom use is the best way to prevent sexually-transmitted disease.
Saving Our Sons (SOS) This reinforces the idea that God is analogous to our earthly fathers. However, these beliefs are not common among Christian groups, which generally see God as having both male and female attributes and therefore no need for a female counterpart. In many polytheistic religions, there are both gods and goddesses clearly defined.
Full-Text Paper (PDF): Hegemonic masculinity vs. a caring masculinity: Implications for understanding primary caregiving fathers.
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an analysis of the hegemonic masculinity in gods of our fathers MACKEY an analysis of the poem the negro speaks of rivers by langston hughes M. Masculinity (also called manhood or manliness) is a set of attributes, behaviors, and roles associated with boys and alphabetnyc.com a social construct, it is distinct from the definition of the male biological sex.
Standards of manliness or masculinity vary across different cultures and historical periods. Both males and females can exhibit masculine traits and behavior.
Free Online Library: A social network analysis of hegemonic and other masculinities.(Report) by "The Journal of Men's Studies"; Women's issues/gender studies Social sciences, general High schools Behavior Demographic aspects Sex (Psychology) Analysis Sexuality Social networks Research.